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Multi Engine maneuvers

In-flight Lesson plan

Ref:: FAA-H-8083-3; POH/AFM.

 

 

Maneuver               STEEP TURNS

               

Purpose

                To demonstrate a pilots ability to control the aircraft in a maximum performance turn

Setup

                Clear area (radio announcement)

                Clean configuration except boost pumps should be on.

                Below Va

Execution/Recovery

o         Locate and align with visual reference out side the cockpit (Mt./Tower) roll aircraft into left bank using co-ordination  control  inputs.

o         Through 30deg increase power slightly to maintain airspeed, you may also trim to release back pressure or use muscle memory.

o         Divide your attention between the horizon and instrument panel.

o         Adjust bank and yoke back pressure slightly to maintain altitude, use small power adjustments to maintain airspeed. 

o         Begin rolling out 20/30degs increasing forward yoke pressure to prevent climb.

o         Continue rolling through level and enter a right turn, roll out 20/30deg prior to heading, remove trim if applied. Establish previous Altitude and heading.

               

Completion standards

o         Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to steep turns.

o         Establishes the manufacturer's recommended airspeed or if one is not stated, a safe airspeed not to exceed VA.

o         Rolls into a coordinated 360° steep turn with at least a 50° bank, followed by a 360° steep turn in the opposite direction.

o         Divides attention between airplane control and orientation.

o         Maintains the entry altitude, ±100 feet, airspeed, ±10 knots, bank  ±5°; and rolls out on the entry heading, ±10°.

Common Errors

o         1 Improper pitch, bank and power coordination during entry and rollout.

o         Increasing pitch attitude before establishing bank angle with resulting gain in altitude.

o         Not releasing back pressure in recovery resulting in a gain in altitude.

o         Not enough or too much bank

o         No use of power to assist maintaining altitude

o         2. Uncoordinated use of flight controls, Slipping or Kidding through the maneuver: skid is common in right turns.

o         3. Inappropriate control applications-not making necessary minor adjustments in Altitude and bank angle throughout the maneuver requiring extreme corrections.

o         4. Improper technique in correcting altitude deviation-not reducing bank angle first before increasing back pressure when trying to correct for loss of altitude.

o         5. Loss of orientation- the initial heading from which the maneuver began is forgotten and/or reference point outside can no longer be found.

 

 

Ref: FAA-H-8083-3, AC 61-67; POH/AFM. PTS

 

Maneuver               SLOW FLIGHT

 

Purpose

                To demonstrate aircraft control at high drag, low airspeed configuration (approach).

 

Setup

                Clear Area (clearing turns)

                Flow check: Gear-DOWN, Fuel-ON, Flaps FULL, Mixture-FWD, Props-FWD, Power-as reqd,               Fuel Pump-ON.

 

Execution

                Slow to 5kias above Vs while adjusting trim to relieve back pressure.

                Adjust Speed with pitch(yoke) and Altitude with Power(region of rev command).

                Perform turns at no more than ˝ standard rate.

Recovery: Reduce pitch and Add Power simultaneously maintain level flight, accelerate to Vy/Vx

                And the Cruise check list (Gear/Flaps=up).

 

Completion standards

               

                1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to maneuvering

                during slow flight.

                2. Selects an entry altitude that will allow the task to be completed

                no lower than 3,000 feet  AGL.

                3. Establishes and maintains an airspeed at which any further

                increase in angle of attack, increase in load factor, or reduction in

                power, would result in an immediate stall.

                4. Accomplishes coordinated straight-and-level flight, turns, climbs,

                and descents with landing gear and flap configurations specified

                by the examiner.

                5. Divides attention between airplane control and orientation.

                6. Maintains the specified altitude, ±50 feet ; specified heading, ±10°;

                airspeed +5/−0 knots, and specified angle of bank, ±5°.

 

Common Error

1.        Failure to establish specified gear and flap configuration.

2.        Improper entry technique

3.        Failure to establish and maintain the specified airspeed.

4.        Excessive variations of altitude and heading.

5.        Rough or uncoordinated control technique

6.        Improper trim technique.

 

 

 Maneuver              VMC DEMO

               

Purpose

                Demonstrate loss of directional control in single engine operation at slow airspeed.

 

Setup

                Clear area.

                Flow check: Landing-UP, Fuel-ON, Flaps-UP, Mixture-FWD, Prop-FWD, Fuel Pumps-ON, Power-Set for Vyse/Vxse + 10kias.

               

Execution/Recovery

  1. Begin maneuver by smoothly reducing power on the critical engine(usually left) to 50% or whatever is necessary to regain control, and increase to full power on the “good” engine applying rudder pressure to maintain heading.
  2. Pitch aircraft up to lose 1kt per second.
  3. Continue until First Stall indication, Loss of Directional Control or any threat to safety of   flight
  4. Recover by simultaneously reducing power on the operating engine and pitching down for horizon accelerating away from stall/Vmc.
  5. Once directional control is established apply full power on the operating engine, accelerate to Vx, establish straight and level flight.
  6. Announce “Vmc Demo complete and scissor the throttles to cruise power.
  7. Cruise check.

                               

Completion standards

                1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to VMC by explaining

                the causes of loss of directional control at airspeeds less than

                VMC,  the factors affecting VMC, and safe recovery procedures.

                2. Configures the airplane at VSSE/VYSE, as appropriate—

                                a. Landing gear retracted.

                                b. Flaps set for takeoff.

                                c. Cowl flaps set for takeoff.

                                d. Trim set for takeoff.

                                e. Propellers set for high RPM.

                                f. Power on critical engine reduced to idle.

                                g. Power on operating engine set to takeoff or maximum

                                available power.

                3. Establishes a single-engine climb attitude with the airspeed at

                approximately, 10 knots above VSSE or VYSE, as appropriate.

                4. Establishes a bank toward the operating engine, as required for

                best performance and controllability.

                5. Increases the pitch attitude slowly to reduce the airspeed at

                approximately 1 knot per second while applying rudder pressure

                to maintain directional control until full rudder is applied.

                6. Recognizes indications of loss of directional control, stall warning

                or buffet.

 

Common Errors

  1. Inadequate knowledge of the causes of loss of directional control at airspeeds less than Vmc factors affecting Vmc and safe recovery procedures.
  2. Improper entry procedure including, pitch attitude, bank angle and airspeed
  3. Failure to use proper recovery procedure.

 

                                                                Ref: FAA-H-8083-3; POH/AFM.ATP Supp .PTS

 

 

Maneuver              VMC DEMO

               

Purpose

                Demonstrate loss of directional control in single engine operation at slow airspeed.

 

Setup

                Clear area.

                Flow check: Landing-UP, Fuel-ON, Flaps-UP, Mixture-FWD, Prop-FWD, Fuel Pumps-ON, Power-Set for Vyse/Vxse + 10kias.

               

Execution/Recovery

  1. Begin maneuver by smoothly reducing power on the critical engine(usually left) to 50% or whatever is necessary to regain control, and increase to full power on the “good” engine applying rudder pressure to maintain heading.
  2. Pitch aircraft up to lose 1kt per second.
  3. Continue until First Stall indication, Loss of Directional Control or any threat to safety of   flight
  4. Recover by simultaneously reducing power on the operating engine and pitching down for horizon accelerating away from stall/Vmc.
  5. Once directional control is established apply full power on the operating engine, accelerate to Vx, establish straight and level flight.
  6. Announce “Vmc Demo complete and scissor the throttles to cruise power.
  7. Cruise check.

                               

Completion standards

                1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to VMC by explaining

                the causes of loss of directional control at airspeeds less than

                VMC,  the factors affecting VMC, and safe recovery procedures.

                2. Configures the airplane at VSSE/VYSE, as appropriate—

                                a. Landing gear retracted.

                                b. Flaps set for takeoff.

                                c. Cowl flaps set for takeoff.

                                d. Trim set for takeoff.

                                e. Propellers set for high RPM.

                                f. Power on critical engine reduced to idle.

                                g. Power on operating engine set to takeoff or maximum

                                available power.

                3. Establishes a single-engine climb attitude with the airspeed at

                approximately, 10 knots above VSSE or VYSE, as appropriate.

                4. Establishes a bank toward the operating engine, as required for

                best performance and controllability.

                5. Increases the pitch attitude slowly to reduce the airspeed at

                approximately 1 knot per second while applying rudder pressure

                to maintain directional control until full rudder is applied.

                6. Recognizes indications of loss of directional control, stall warning

                or buffet.

 

Common Errors

  1. Inadequate knowledge of the causes of loss of directional control at airspeeds less than Vmc factors affecting Vmc and safe recovery procedures.
  2. Improper entry procedure including, pitch attitude, bank angle and airspeed
  3. Failure to use proper recovery procedure.

 

                                                                Ref: FAA-H-8083-3; POH/AFM.ATP Supp .PTS

 

               

             

Maneuver:     Power On Stall (Take off/Departure)

 

Purpose

            Demonstrate to student what can happen if too much pitch is applied on take off.

Setup

            Clearing turns

            Flow check- Gear UP, Fuel-ON, Flaps-UP, Mixtures-FWD, Props-FWD, Power for Vx (17in),

            Fuel Pumps-ON, Stabilize A/C

 

Execution:     

  1. Execution: Power-65% or greater (18in), Pitch-12 to 15deg, As the stall occurs (buffet)…...
  2. Recovery: Simultaneously pitch for horizon and full power, accelerate to Vx/Vy
  3. Return to Altitude and Heading,
  4. Perform Cruise check.

 

Completion standards

  1. Minimal loss of altitude and no lower than 3000AGL
  2. Straight flight-Heading +/- 5deg
  3. Banking-Not to exceed 20deg, +/- 10deg in turning flight while inducing stall.
  4. Recognizes Stall and promptly and initiates recovery (AOA/POWER)

 

Common errors:

            1. Failure to establish the specified landing gear and flap configuration prior to    entry.  
            2. Improper pitch, heading, and bank control during straight ahead stalls.
            3. Improper pitch and bank control during turning stalls.
            4. Rough or uncoordinated control technique.
            5. Failure to recognize the first indications of a stall.
            6. Failure to achieve a stall.
            7. Excessive altitude loss or excessive airspeed during recovery.
            8. Secondary stall during recovery.

 

Ref: FAA-H-8083-3;AC 61-67;POH/AFM;PTS;ATP supp.